Directories vs folders

One endless source of aggravation to a an individual like myself who values precision is the widespread misuse of "folder" to mean "directory".

What is the difference between directory and folder, you ask?

A directory is a container of other directories and files in a file system. A folder is how containers of items are represented in most contemporary GUIs.

Most of the time, a folder corresponds to a directory. However, a folder can contain items other than files and directories, it may not correspond to a directory at all, or may correspond to different directories at different times.

Shell folders on Windows provide examples of all of the above:

  • "My documents" is a folder. Which directory that folder corresponds to can be changed via a registry setting.
  • When viewed in Windows Explorer, "My documents" folder is located under "Desktop" hierarchically. On the file system, by default, "Desktop" and "My documents" directories are siblings, being children of the user profile directory.
  • Windows considers "Control panel" and "Network connections" shell folders. There are no physical directories corresponding to either. "Control panel" is a program, "Network connections" is an internal Windows data structure.
  • There is a directory corresponding to "Desktop" in windows. Files and directories placed in that directory will appear on the user's desktop. However, the desktop also has "My computer" icon on it in the UI. "My computer" is not a directory - it is an item that exists only in the shell.

Windows calls the things that might be found in folders shell items. A shell item might correspond to a file, or to an object that has no filesystem counterpart.

Even wikipedia notes the distinction between directories and files:

There is a difference between a directory, which is a file system
concept, and the graphical user interface metaphor that is used to
represent it (a folder).

Please, use "directory" when you mean the file system object rather than an icon on your screen.